Find a manufacturer by mac address
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A media access control address MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller NIC and are stored in its hardware, such as the card's read-only memory or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address BIA.
It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware address EHA , hardware address or physical address. This can be contrasted to a programmed address, where the host device issues commands to the NIC to use an arbitrary address.
The standard IEEE format for printing MAC addresses in human-friendly form is six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens - or colons : , in transmission order e. This form is also commonly used for EUI Another convention used by networking equipment uses three groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by dots. This bit address space contains potentially or ,,,, possible MAC addresses. All three numbering systems use the same format and differ only in the length of the identifier.
Addresses can either be universally administered addresses or locally administered addresses. A universally administered address is uniquely assigned to a device by its manufacturer. The first three octets in transmission order identify the organization that issued the identifier and are known as the Organizationally Unique Identifier OUI. The following three MAC and EUI or five EUI octets are assigned by that organization in nearly any manner they please, subject to the constraint of uniqueness.
A locally administered address is assigned to a device by a network administrator, overriding the burned-in address. Locally administered addresses do not contain OUIs. Universally administered and locally administered addresses are distinguished by setting the second- least-significant bit of the most significant byte of the address.
If the bit is 0, the address is universally administered. If it is 1, the address is locally administered. In the example address the most significant byte is 06 hex , the binary form of which is , where the second-least-significant bit is 1.
Therefore, it is a locally administered address. Consequently, this bit is 0 in all OUIs. If the least significant bit of the most significant octet of an address is set to 0 zero , the frame is meant to reach only one receiving NIC. This type of transmission is called unicast. A unicast frame is transmitted to all nodes within the collision domain , which typically ends at the nearest network switch or router.
A switch will forward a unicast frame through all of its ports except for the port that originated the frame if the switch has no knowledge of which port leads to that MAC address, or just to the proper port if it does have knowledge. Only the node with the matching hardware MAC address will accept the frame; network frames with non-matching MAC-addresses are ignored, unless the device is in promiscuous mode. If the least significant bit of the most significant address octet is set to 1, the frame will still be sent only once; however, NICs will choose to accept it based on criteria other than the matching of a MAC address: for example, based on a configurable list of accepted multicast MAC addresses.
This is called multicast addressing. Thus, by definition, an EUI is not in fact a "MAC address", although it is syntactically indistinguishable from one and assigned from the same numbering space. The IEEE now considers the label MAC to be an obsolete term, previously used to refer to a specific type of EUI identifier used to address hardware interfaces within existing based networking applications, and thus not to be used in the future.
Instead, the proprietary term EUI should be used for this purpose. The IEEE has built in several special address types to allow more than one network interface card to be addressed at one time:. These are all examples of group addresses , as opposed to individual addresses ; the least significant bit of the first octet of a MAC address distinguishes individual addresses from group addresses.
That bit is set to 0 in individual addresses and set to 1 in group addresses. Group addresses, like individual addresses, can be universally administered or locally administered. In both cases, the process can be trivially reversed when necessary. Organizations issuing EUIs are cautioned against issuing identifiers that could be confused with these forms.
Although intended to be a permanent and globally unique identification, it is possible to change the MAC address on most modern hardware. Changing MAC addresses is necessary in network virtualization. It can also be used in the process of exploiting security vulnerabilities.
This is called MAC spoofing. A host cannot determine from the MAC address of another host whether that host is on the same link network segment as the sending host, or on a network segment bridged to that network segment. On broadcast networks, such as Ethernet, the MAC address uniquely identifies each node on that segment and allows frames to be marked for specific hosts. It thus forms the basis of most of the link layer OSI Layer 2 networking upon which upper layer protocols rely to produce complex, functioning networks.
Layer 2 switches use MAC addresses to restrict packet transmission to the intended recipient. However, the effect is not immediate. However, since IEEE For example, an address in canonical form A-BC would be transmitted over the wire as bits in the standard transmission order least significant bit first.
But for Token Ring networks, it would be transmitted as bits in most-significant-bit first order. The latter might be incorrectly displayed as C-6A-1ED. Canonical form is generally preferred, and used by all modern implementations. When the first switches supporting both Token Ring and Ethernet came out, some did not distinguish between canonical form and non-canonical form and so did not reverse MAC address bits as required.
This led to cases of duplicate MAC addresses in the field. Information is freedom. Freedom is non-negotiable. Feel free to modify, copy, republish, sell, or use anything on this site at any time. The use of "hacker" to mean "security breaker" is a confusion on the part of the mass media. We hackers refuse to recognize that meaning, and continue using the word to mean someone who loves to program, someone who enjoys playful cleverness, or the combination of the two.
MAC Address Finder
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Find the MAC Address
A media access control address MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller NIC and are stored in its hardware, such as the card's read-only memory or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address BIA. It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware address EHA , hardware address or physical address. This can be contrasted to a programmed address, where the host device issues commands to the NIC to use an arbitrary address. The standard IEEE format for printing MAC addresses in human-friendly form is six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens - or colons : , in transmission order e. This form is also commonly used for EUI
MAC Address Lookup
This address is literally unique — every Ethernet device in the world has a different MAC address. The MAC address should not be confused with a devices IP address, which is an entirely separate address that does not have to be unique across the world. If you are manufacturing a product that includes an Ethernet interface you will need purchase a block of MAC addresses. Their web site is at
MAC Address / OUI Lookup
More than 39K companies and growing every day, our nightly update ensures that we have all companies listed once added in IEEE directory. API provides search and get functions based on Mac, Company name, and address. Give you maximum flexibility in your own business needs. We work hard to save your time and effort in terms of integration.
For a manufacturer search using a MAC address, at least the first 3 bytes 6 characters of your MAC address are required. If even the smallest address ranges assigned by the IEEE are to be searched, the first 5 bytes 20 characters of your MAC address are required. You can enter your MAC address with or without separators - or :. You can also search for the name of a manufacturer at least 3 characters and get a list of the MAC ranges assigned to the manufacturer. To search for a manufacturer, it is also possible to enter a part of the manufacturer name. Alternatively, you can enter the name of a manufacturer in the search and receive a list of MAC ranges assigned to the manufacturer.
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Генераторы внизу производили постоянный низкочастотный гул, что делало акустику в шифровалке какой-то загробной, присущей миру призраков. ТРАНСТЕКСТ, подобно всем великим технологическим достижениям, появился на свет в силу необходимости.
В 1980-е годы АНБ стало свидетелем революции в сфере телекоммуникаций, которой было суждено навсегда изменить весь мир разведывательной деятельности, - имеется в виду широкая доступность Интернета, а если говорить конкретнее - появление электронной почты. Преступники, террористы и шпионы, которым надоело прослушивание их телефонов, с радостью встретили это новое средство глобальной коммуникации.
Электронная почта соединила безопасность обычной почты со скоростью телефонной связи. С тех пор как сообщения стали передаваться по подземным волоконно-оптическим линиям, а не с помощью радиоволн, они оказались полностью защищенными от перехвата - таков по крайней мере был замысел.
В действительности перехват электронных писем, передвигаемых по Интернету, был детской забавой для технических гуру из АНБ.
- Мне действительно нужно… На этот раз ее слова прервал резкий звонок мобильного телефона Стратмора. Коммандер поднес его к уху. - В чем дело? - рявкнул он и замолчал, внимательно слушая собеседника. Сьюзан на какое-то время забыла про Хейла. Она молила Бога, чтобы Стратмору звонил Дэвид.
Search for manufacturer by MAC address:
Три, - прошептала она, словно оглушенная. - Три! - раздался крик Дэвида из Испании. Но в общем хаосе их никто, похоже, не слышал.
Ethical hacking and penetration testing
Сьюзан с опаской посмотрела на связанного шифровальщика. Стратмор сидел на диване, небрежно положив берет-ту на колени. Вернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан приступила к линейному поиску. Четвертая попытка тоже не дала результата.
- Расскажи, что с тобой случилось.
Беккер заглянул в справочник Управления общей бухгалтерской отчетности США, но не нашел в нем ничего похожего. Заинтригованный, он позвонил одному из своих партнеров по теннису, бывшему политологу, перешедшему на службу в Библиотеку конгресса. Слова приятеля его очень удивили.
Дело в том, что АНБ не только существовало, но и считалось одной из самых влиятельных правительственных организаций в США и во всем мире.
Казалось, Стратмор ее не слышал. - В последние несколько лет наша работа здесь, в агентстве, становилась все более трудной. Мы столкнулись с врагами, которые, как мне казалось, никогда не посмеют бросить нам вызов. Я говорю о наших собственных гражданах. О юристах, фанатичных борцах за гражданские права, о Фонде электронных границ - они все приняли в этом участие, но дело в другом.
Дело в людях. Они потеряли веру.
Бедлам. Так он и. Очередь из десяти человек, толкотня и крик.